Mini Hydro-Power Plant – Project



Hydro-Power plant

is widely using the method of power generation by using water. It is a cheapest and easy method of producing power. In Pakistan, more than 90% electricity is generated by hydropower. It is the most ancient method of producing power and electricity.

Hydropower plant converts mechanical energy (potential energy and kinetic energy) to electrical energy.

Our objective:

The purpose of the project is to describe the function and working of the hydro turbine. This project describes very clearly about the function of hydropower plant with very simple apparatus and tools. Our project can produce electricity more than that requires a LED.

Project material:

  • Wheel
  • DC motor
  • Rope Belt
  • LED
  • Plexiglass
  • Wooden block
  • Pulleys
  • Nails
  • Silicone
  • Metal fittings
  • Spoons
  • Bearing
  • Stand
  • Nut and bolt
  • Wire

Problems related to project material:

In our project, we required a Pelton wheel but it was not available in the market. The solution to this problem was that we brought a rim of a small bicycle. We brought spoons for attaching them to the wheel to give the function of the pelton wheel.

We required a shaft for attaching pulley and wheel on it. That shaft was not available in the market according to our requirements. So we solve this problem by using a Nut of our requirement to use it as a shaft.

As we make a small wheel due to which we had to buy small DC motor of 12 volts. So we could only attach a small pulley to the motor.

The pulley we brought was small enough that neither flat belts nor Vee belts could attach with the pulley. To solve this problem we bought a rope belt which properly fit on the pulley and which could transfer power with minimum slippage and losses.

Manufacturing Process:

  • We take a rim of bicycle and mark the rim for attaching spoons on it.
  • Then we cut the spoons at a certain length which was required to us.
  • Then we join spoons with rim by gas welding on marking of the rim.
  • We put a bearing in the wheel so that wheel can rotate easily.
  • Then color this wheel by black spray for good look.
  • We take a bolt for shaft purpose and pass it through the bearing of the wheel and bolt this nut.
  • On the other end of the bolt, we attach a pulley which is larger in size than other pulley.
  • We attach this wheel to a stand which gives it support.
  • Then we take a wooden board for assembling our this mini project.
  • We drilled the board to attach stand of wheel with board.
  • According to the length of belt, we attach the DC motor to the board with the help of metal clips.
  • Then we attach the smaller pulley on DC motor shaft.
  • After this, we connect both pulleys by a rope belt.
  • And then we attach wires to the motor and other ends of wire join to LED.
  • Then we attach the glass sheets on the sides of the wheel by silicone and metal clips to control the splashes of water.


The most important thing is that how the project works.

  • First, we fall water from a certain height on the wheel.
  • The wheel will move because of the pressure of water on spoons on the wheel.
  • The wheel move due to which bigger pulley also moves.
  • Then bigger pulley transmit the power through the belt to the smaller pulley attached to the motor.
  • By this smaller pulley rotates and motor also.
  • The motor then converts mechanical energy into electrical energy and so that LED attached to this DC motor turns on.


By this project, we learn one of the most important things which is the planning of the project. If we have planned then it is easier to make the project. No money and time will be wasted on the project. By planning, we make project sequence with minimum losses.

Our project limitation is that on higher speed belt will slip. As we use rope belt instead of flat or vee belt which have more friction and can transfer more power. But due to our limitation of the smaller pulley on which flat belt or vee belt would not fit we use rope pulley


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